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Adding Winter interest

Now is a great time to think about areas in our gardens that have been lacking interest and what additions we can make for year round beauty. Evergreens are a great option however there are so many plants that may loose their leaves in winter but still shine because of interesting bark, winter berries or because their trucks and branches form beautiful shapes that are only revealed after the leaves have fallen away.


Here are some of our favorite plants for Winter interest:

Magnolia (many varieties) – early bloomer
Catalpa bignonioides – interesting seed pods
Quercus garryana (Garry oak) – growing pattern of branches
Corylus avellana – growing pattern and bark
Daphne – (many varieties)evergreen and scented flowers
Cryptomeria japonica – interesting evergreen foliage
Acer griseum (paperbark maple) – interesting bark
Acer palmatium (coral bark maple) – interesting bark
Japanese maples of all sorts add winter interest for their interesting trunk formations.
Hamamelis (witch hazel) – early spring catkins
Stachyurus praecox (spiketail) – beautiful from and winter blooms
Camelia – many evergreen varieties that bloom in winter and early spring
Betula utilis Jacquemontii (Himalaya birch) – winter bark and growth pattern
Acer tegementosum (Snake Bark Maple) – bark
Pyracantha (Fire Thorn) – evergreen & berries
Sorbus (Mountain Ash) – berries
Magnolia laevifolia – many evergreen varieties

Shrubs and mid sized perennials
Helleborus (many varieties) – winter blooms and evergreen foliage
Cornus sanguinia – branch color
Salix species (willow) – growth formation
Chimonanthus praecox (wintersweet) – winter bloomer
Chaenomeles – early bloomers
Mahonia – evergreen
Heuchera – evergreen and early bloomer
Huecherella – evergreen and early bloomer
Chamaecyparis pisifera ‘Filifera Aurea’ (Gold Thread Cypress) – evergreen
Viburnum bodnatense ‘Pink Dawn’ – bloomer
Tasmannia lanceolata (Pepper bush) – foliage
Arctostaphylos bakeri ‘Louis Edmunds’ – bark

Clematis cirrhosa – blooms
Acinidia (kiwi) – growing pattern

Viola – blooms
Succulents – many varieties
Arctostaphylos uva ursi (Kinnikinnick) – evergreen
Gaultheria procumbens (Wintergreen) – evergreen

Cyclamen coun (winter cyclamen) – winter blooms
Galanthus elwesii (snowdrop) – early Spring blooms
Leucojum vernum – early Spring blooms
Anemone blana and cultivars – early blooms
Narcissus – many varieties – blooms
Crocus many varieties – blooms

Calamagrostis X acutiflora – year round interest
Carex (sedge – many varieties) – evergreen
Miscanthus sinensis (and varieties)  – year round interest

Garden terminology gleaned from words past to inspire gardens to come.

It is still to cold do do much out in the garden so I was compiling a list of garden terminology when I stumbled upon a fantastic web site across the pond. They have an exhaustive list of fascinating garden terminology – here are a few of my favorites but check out http://www.gardenvisit.com/garden_glossary to get the whole shebang as well as links to fabulous gardens, tips on growing and purveyors of all things gardeny.


Abreuvoir – A drinking place for animals and often treated as a garden ornament.

Adonis gardens – Adonis was the nourisher of seeds in Greek mythology. This led to the making of ‘Adonis gardens’ which were small gardens in terra-cotta pots. They were placed outside Adonis temples during festivals.

Allée  – An Allée is a walk bordered with trees or clipped hedges.

Belvedere – The word Belvedere derives from Italian roots (bel= beautiful and vedere=see) and describes a place from which one can see a beautiful view. This place can be a building, usually with open sides.

Bosquet – is a French word, used for a block of trees and shrubs pierced by paths that may contain elaborate features such as sculpture or fountains hidden in the trees.

Bower – A Bower is a garden seat protected by foliage.

Cascade – From the Latin ‘cascare’, to fall, the word Cascade came into use for a small waterfall in a garden.

Chadar is a water chute or cascade in an Indian garden (the word means ‘sheet’ or ‘shawl’)

Clairvoie  – A Clairvoie is a gate, fence or grille placed in an otherwise solid barrier to provide a ‘clear view’ of the outside scenery.

Cloister – derives from the Latin clostrum= lock. It described the part of a monastery to which the public had no access and then became used to describe a rectangular lawn surrounded by a covered walk.

Clump – A Clump is a group of trees (or shrubs) planted together to form a group. The word ‘clumping’ was used in the eighteenth century to describe the practice of converting an avenue into clumps.

Conceit – The noun Conceit is derived from the verb ‘to conceive’ and used for a fanciful idea or an ornamental structure with little or no use.

Conservatory – A Conservatory is a glazed structure for conserving (protecting) plants from cold weather. Originally the term was also used for non-glazed structures used for keeping food such as apples.

Coppice – From a French word meaning ‘to cut’, a coppice is a wood maintained by periodical cutting. It the middle ages this was an important means of growing wood for fencing and kindling.

Coronary Garden – A garden used to grow flowers which could be used for wreaths and garlands.

Crinkle-crankle – is a serpentine wall – which crinkles and crankles.

Dovecote  – A Dovecote is a building in which doves are kept.

Dreamstone – Dreamstone, in Chinese garden design, is a a translucent stone in which mineral deposits have formed pictures of woods and water (also known as a Journeying Stone similar to the picture jaspar in the U.S). Dreamstones were hung from pavilion walls or set into the backs of chairs.

Eurythmy – derives the Greek eu (meaning good) and rhuthmos (meaning proportion or rhythm). According to Vitruvius ‘good rhythm’ is one of the aims of design.

Ferme Ornee, from the French=ornamented farm, and used, mainly in France and England, to describe a farm which is used primarily as an aesthetic ornamentation as opposed to a working farm.

Fernery – A Fernery is a collection of ferns, either indoors or outdoors.

Flowery mead – A Flowery Mead is a medieval name for piece of land let un-plouged and so overtaken with wild flowers.

Genius of the place – The genius of the place (Italian ‘genius locii’) can be defined as ‘the spirit of the place’. Alexander Pope said she must be ‘consulted’ in the course of making a design. ‘Consult the genius of the place’ is one of the most widely-supported principles in garden and landscape design.

Giardino Segreto  – Giardino Segreto is the Italian for ‘secret garden’. During the renaissance this described a secret enclosure within a garden.

Gloriette – In medieval gardens a gloriette was a summerhouse, often in the woods near a castle. It might be used by the ladies to take a meal while watching a hunt.

Ha-ha – A Ha-Ha is a sunk wall with a ditch outside, used so that the garden boundary is not visible from within.

Hermitage  – A Hermitage is a garden building which looks suited to use by a hermit, usually with a rustic appearance.

Karesansui – is a Japanese Dry Garden, with water represented by sand or gravel. Dry Gardena are increasingly described as a Zen Garden.

Labyrinth – is a network of paths designed as a puzzle to entertain visitors

Maze – A Maze is a network of paths designed as a puzzle. Garden mazes can be designed using turf, paving, hedges or other materials. The idea is ancient.

Moon gate – A Moon Gate is circular aperture in a wall. The idea comes from Chinese gardens.

Mossery – A Mossery is a collection of mosses.

Moss house – A Moss House is a garden building with moss pressed between the wall slats.

Natural – The Platonic axiom that ‘art should imitate nature’, which comes from Plato’s Theory of Forms, has had a profound influence on garden design. But the meaning of the term ‘nature’ has varied. Sometimes it has meant ‘the world of the forms’ and sometimes it has meant ‘the everyday world’.

Niche – A Niche is a shallow recess in a wall or hedge, for placing a sculpture or for decorative effect.

Niwa – Niwa is the Japanese word for ‘garden’. The word derives derives from ni, clay, and ha, place. In the Chronicle of Japan a niwa was a place purified for worship of the gods.

Nymphaeum  – A Nymphaeum is a place for nymphs. A nymph was a semi-divine maiden. They were believed to like water, caves, rivers and fountains.

Orangery  – An Orangery is a conservatory made for the cultivation of oranges. They were common in renaissance and baroque gardens.

Pall-mall (from the French Paille-maille, and originally from the Italian pallamaglio, palla, ball, and maglio, mallet) is a game, rather like croquet, which led to the making of ‘malls’ in parks and gardens. This was the original use of The Mall in London.

Paradise – Paradise was originally a Persian name (paradeisos) for a park stocked with exotic animals, the word Paradise was used by the Greeks to mean ‘an ideal place’.

Parterre (From the French par=on + terre=ground). A level space, usually rectangular and on a terrace near a house, laid out in decorative pattern using plants and gravels.

Patio  – is a Spanish word for an arcaded or colonnaded courtyard. It is now applied to any small paved area in a garden.

Pavilion – The word Pavilion derives from the Latin papilio=butterfly. Originally the word meant a tent, in gardens it is used for an airy and light building.

Penjing – is the Chinese word for a tray garden (the word came into Japanese as ‘bonsai’).

Physic garden – A Physic Garden is a special garden used for growing medicinal plants.

Pinery – A Pinery is conservatory for growing pineapples.

Pinetum  – A Pinetum is a collection of coniferous trees.

Piscina – A piscina is a stone basin used as a fish-pond or a bathing-pond.

Pleasance (or Pleasuance) is a pleasure ground attached to a castle or mansion, usually outside the fortifications.

Pomarium  – Pomarium is a medieval term for an apple orchard.

Potager – Potager is the French word for a vegetable garden.

Privy garden – Privy means ‘private’ and thus a private garden, usually made for the sole use of a king or queen.

Rill  – is a small water course.

Rocaille –  is rockwork, shellwork or pebblework.

Rock garden – A Rock Garden is a place for growing alpine plants.

Roji – A Roji is a ‘dewy path’ to a tea house in a Japanese garden

Root House  – A root house is a garden building made with roots, trunks, stumps, branches and other parts of trees.

Rosarium  – is a rose garden, often circular.

Sacred grove – In Ancient Egypt, Sacred Groves were placed within temple compounds. In Homeric Greece they were places of resort, outside citadels, often dedicated to specific gods and associated with a fresh spring or grotto. In Classical Greece, sacred groves were used for physical and intellectual exercise. They became academies, lyceums and gymnasia.

Shakkei – is borrowed scenery (as in a mountain) in a Japanese garden.

Stroll garden – A Stroll Garden is a Japanese garden planned to reveal a sequence of views as the the visitor strolls along the path.

Theatre derives from the Greek theaomai=to behold). In gardens a theatre can be an a place see a theatrical performance or place which is like the set for a play.

Topiary – describes a shape made by clipping plants. The practice was popular in Roman gardens and revived with the renaissance.

Torii – A Torii is a gateway at the entrance to a Japanese Shinto shrine, and in other derivative locations, sometimes in gardens.

Tortoise island – The tale of islands supported by tortorises (the Isles of the Immortals) came from China and led to the making of islands with rocks representing tortorises in Japanese gardens

Treillage – is elaborate trellis-work, used to support plants in gardens.

Wilderness – A Wilderness is a wood, kept for pleasure, with walks.

Winter garden – A Winter Garden is an outdoor area used for winter-flowering plants.

Yuan – Yuan is the Chinese word for ‘garden’. Originally, a ‘yuan’ was an imperial hunting park, bounded by a mud wall.

February Garden Tips

winter helleboreWe often get a little tease of spring temperature during Feb but don’t be fooled into rushing starts and new perennials outdoors to soon – instead take advantage of a few nice days to enjoy other gardening projects.

• Garden clean up time is here, rake out debris, trim back unruly shrubs and winter shriveled grasses. Sweep off paths and patios. You can also clean garden tools – oil handles and gears and sterilize pruners and clippers with alcohol before use.

• Weeds always get a head start before the rest of our plants, they go to seed and make your spring clean up harder than it has to be, so get out and pull those guys now before they take over.

• Spray susceptible plants like fruit trees, roses, and lilacs with a dormant spray – copper sulfate, lime-sulfur, or horticultural oils to help avoid disease, fungus and insect infestations later in the year.

• It’s time for mason bee supplies! These native bees are a wonderful pollinator of early flowering plants especially fruit trees. Mason bees are solitary bees that don’t build a traditional hive or make honey but what they do is pollinate about 90% of the flowers they contact! And that’s great for the garden. See our facebook page for videos on how to make your own mason bee house or come join us for a class in March.

• Pick out summer-flowering bulbs to plant in a few weeks when the weather warms.

• Start planning your vegetable garden by reading about new varieties and stocking up on seeds, potato starts and onion sets.

• Plant arugula, peas, favas, spinach, kale, hardy greens and asparagus but lettuce will need a cold frame or cloche.

• Start seeds indoors for planting in March – broccoli, cabbage, cilantro, chives, leeks and parsley.

• Go to a garden show for a little inspiration – Check out our post from last week with a list of exotic gardens and shows around the world.

• Prune dormant trees and shrubs before those tender little buds swell. See our pruning tips blog post for some basic instruction. Some varieties need winter pruning and others need summer pruning or they will bleed to much sap. Make sure you know before you start cutting.

• Add some early bloomers to welcome Spring:

• Hellebore
• Viola
• Some clematis varieties like cirrhosa
• Anemones
• Crocus
• Galanthus – snow drops
• Filbert – corylus
• Daphne
• Hamamelis – Witch hazel
• Plum
• Cherry
• Edgeworthia – Chinese paperbush
• Stachurus praecox – spiketail

Judging by our amazingly clear and sunny January we might be heading into a ferocious month. Lets hope we get lots of rain to make up for our dry winter and at least a few more nice days for finishing February garden projects.

© thicket 2017